For International Environmental Management four sustainability indicators are formulated alongwith Human Development Achievements of different nations. They are as follows
1. Environmental Efficiency (EE)
2. Carrying Capacity (CC)
3. Horizontal sustainability called May value
4. Vertical sustainability called Ton value
United Nations (UNDP) publishes the Human Development Index (HDI) of different countries in the human development reports. More than per capita income human development index captures the human capital also in terms of health and educational achievements. As per the 2013 data value of HDI varies from 0.337 ( Niger ) to 0.944 (Norway). But on the principles of sustainable development there are certain characteristics by which human development is to achieved. They are nothing but Environmental Efficiency (EE) and Carrying Capacity (CC) which have been formulated based on the database of UNDP and WWF (World Footprint Network) for the year 2005 and 2013. HDI, EE&CC classification of the world are as below.
HDI= 0.74-----0.70**** High HDI
EE = 2.60-----2.50**** Medium- Environmental- Efficiency
CC = 0.79-----0.65**** Carrying- Capacity- Deficient
If the earth is Carrying -Capacity-Sufficient all the emissions due to anthropogenic activities could be fully sequestrated by the earth and hence sustainable for ever. But it is not the case after 1960s. Now we are living in an ecologically over shooting earth and the it is getting accelerated day by day. All of us are living in a vicious circle leading to disaster.
Achievement of human development through EE&CC shall be started from individual level to community/ city/metropolitan area/state/nation and to global level. Environmental Efficiency (EE) can be calculated by taking the human development achievements with respect to its ecological footprint while Carrying Capacity (CC) can be calculated by dividing the Biocapacity (Bc) by the Ecological Footprint(EFp) calculations of National Footprint Account(NFA). More than a formulae EE&CC are useful concepts for achieving a sustainable globe.
Improvement of EE&CC values of nations are more important as the ecological footprint is having an upward trend while biocapacity is having a diminishing trend and thus the trend needs to be reversed. Human Development is the engine without which the humanity cannot sustain and thus any development model compromising the human development would be a futile exercise. What we can achieve is Environmental Efficiency by reducing the spare capacity and wastage alongwith ecosystem conservations to support the humanity. Top ranking nations in terms of human development would be sustainable only alongwith EE&CC achievements.
Horizontal Sustainability-may value is obtained by incorporating the inequality dimension alongwith the human development and ecological footprint values. Hence in horizontal sustainability-may value three pillars of sustainability by name EQUITY-ECONOMY-ENVIRONMENT are considered.
Vertical Sustainability ton value is a further modification of the Carrying Capacity dimension leading to inter-generational sustainability to more convincing and user friendly way. Vertical Sustainability ton value of different nations are obtained by subtracting '1' from the CC values. Thus CC deficient nations are having negative values while CC sufficient nations are having non-negative values. Alongwith HD and high may value if nations are having a positive ton value they should be highly proud of as they do not contribute to global ecological overshoot.
Environmental Management-Biocapacity Trading
High HDI negative ton value nations can buy biocapacity from low HDI positive ton value nations. Those high HDI countries can in turn enable low HDI countries to achieve sustainable human development with better EE values leading to a sustainable globe.
Classifications based on HD, EE&CC values 2005 of some nations are tabulated. Also classifications based on 2013 HDI, EE&CC, may value and ton value are tabulated.
Formulae and source of information for calculations
HDI data 2005 and 2013 excel tables published by UNDP
Ecological Footprint 2005 and 2011- Excel tables from World Foot Print Network
where EFpI is the normalised figure of EFp by dividing with maximum value of EFp of all nations(in this case it is the EFp of UAE)
Horizontal Sustainability, May value=IHDI/EFpI
Where IHDI is the inequality adjusted human development index of different nations published by UNDP
Vertical Sustainability, ton value =CC-1
EE&CC and ton value&may value ENHANCEMENT, GLOBAL TO LOCAL
1.Increase the land utility
Common land ownership, undivided ownership of land etc encourages land utility as the facilities in the land are enjoyed by many.
2.Increase the accessibility
Encourage walking, cycling and mass transport systems, transit oriented development (TOD)
3.Reduce the percapita built up area
Encourage vertical development with less coverage of the plot
4.Contained Development and ecosystem conservation
Encourage planned, compact, high density development
5.Reduce per capita energy consumption
Use of non-conventional energy (solar, wind, wave )
Waste to energy
Recycling to achieve circular economy
Reduce the inequality in ecological footprint
Ecosystem conservation with transferable development right (TDR)
"Nations should improve their Environmental Efficiency and may value which is the equitable human development achievements with respect to the ecological footprint."
"Nations should contain their ecological footprint within their biocapacity contributing to Carrying Capacity and ton value and overshoot shall be compensated."