• Civil Engineering Association Activities of Viswajyothy College of Engineering and Technology
  • World Urban Indicator sytem
  • Environmental Efficiency symbolised as tree
  • Looking forward to prepare an EE&CC (Environmental Efficiency&Carrying Capacity)map for Ernakulam


indrodues two powerful indicators of sustainability by name Environmental Efficiency(EE) improvised as 'may value' Carrying Capacity(CC) improvisd as ' ton value"


Environmental &development hand 'n' hand. The crux of sustainability

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Terms of sustainability

Environmental Efficiency & Carrying Capacity

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Intra-generational &Inter-generational

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EE&CC Application levels

EE&CC global to local

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Technical Talks

Environmentally- Efficient Development Management System for National Prosperity

World urbanisation is mostly happening at two extreme ways. In less developed countries there is tendency of big cities becoming bigger day by day. This often causes overcrowding and overload to the existing infrastructure, resulting in urban decay, chaos and miseries and thus environmentally less efficient. Also there are urbanised regions in countries which are under-populated and affected by urban sprawl creating spare capacity of infrastructure, fossil fuel wastage and under-performing ecosystems resulting in less environmental efficiency.

EE and CC based development planning and management of metropolitan areas reduces the gap between output and input of a human settlement system. The gap is either hidden as spare capacity of infrastructure / resources or losses like fossil fuel wastage, distribution losses of power transmission etc. Reduction of this gap increases the profitability of the business establishments and enable efficient administration of the governments. As the profitability increases job opportunities also increase. This enables balanced urban and regional development and urbanisation of a higher percentage of people. A fewer percentage of people will be depending on primary sector activities causing bulk production with high mechanisation and automation so that percapita productivity of primary sector activities also multiplies.

EE and CC evaluation and monitoring in India can be implemented through NUIS (National Urban Information System) programme of Government of India which is spearheaded by Global Urban Observatory Programme of UN HABITAT. In India NUIS programme is taken up by Town and Country Planning Organisation under the Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation, Government of India. Policy formulation and investment prioritisation can be done based on the EE and CC performance of different cities/metropolitan areas within the states.

For a Sustainable Kerala

Strength and Opportunities

SWOT of Greater Kochi in Kerala State reveals that strengths and opportunities are immense while weaknesses and threats could easily be contained with prudent land management practices


Abodes to suburbs for comfort
Farms to forests for productivity
Animals to suburbs for food
Workforce moves abroad for job
Families out migrate for secure living

Constituent terms

Human development index of UNDP Biocapacity & Ecological footprint of GFN


Environmental Efficiency improvised as "may value" Carrying Capacity improvised as "ton value"

EE&CC of Kerala

Halting human development,Spiralling ecological footprint,Diminishing biocapacity,Falling EE & CC

Chronic Disease

Unchecked settlement pattern creates underperforming urban and rural systems which is causing slow death to the state.


Compact Cities

Planned Compact high density development contributes to EE & CC

Green Buildings

Green building can contribute to Environmental Efficiency enhancement due to better comfort conditions with energy efficiency

Rain Water Management

Slowing down of the rainwater run off enables more percolations to the ground to have round the year availability of subsoil water which increases carrying capacity with rich ecosystems in the suburbs and environmentally-efficient urban fabric.

Regional Planning Approch

It is the quintessential need of the hour to make statute for making regional plans. The prevalent sectoral approach should be replaced by regional planning approach for effective budget allocations based on the merit of the location.


To adapt from the present system "Transfer of Development Rights" in a fool-proof platform is the essential requirement to identify sending and receiving zones and to get social acceptance.

Objective Decisions in GIS

Geographic Information System can play great role for taking rational and objective decisions and if it is supported by BLOCK-CHAIN it would ensure social acceptance.

EE&CC indicator system

A rightful approach of measuring the real progress in this ecologically-overshooting earth and for prioritisation of investments for a better world

Property Taxation

For an environmentally- efficient development management system, property taxation should be rationalised based on the theories of environmental efficiency & carrying capacity.

Environmental Efficiency and Carrying Capacity are like the two sides of the coin


Although Environmental Efficiency theory was evolved with long years of contemplation Carrying Capacity theory was evolved all on a sudden. It is nothing but Capacity by Consumption and in this case, bio-capacity of the system divided by per person ecological footprint. Both biocapacity and ecological footprint values are published by the Global Footprint Network constituted by Dr Mathis Wackernagel who was a PhD researcher at the University of British Columbia. Carrying Capacity values are complied from the Global Footprint Network spreadsheets shared by them. Earth is going Carrying Capacity deficient from the 1960s as the values were below one. If the Carrying Capacity of the earth in 2005 was 0.79 it is 0.65 in 2013. This indicates that the earth was overloaded by 26% in 2005 while it is aggravated to 54% in 2013. As per the latest published calculations of Global Footprint Network it is again aggravated to a figure of 57% in 2019.

Carrying Capacity values of earth and biosphere can be improved by taking the concept from


Global to Local Level subsystems. With the aid of Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing capabilities, it is possible to prepare the Carrying Capacity maps of Cities and Metropolitan Regions by taking proxy indicators of Carrying Capacity.

Those parcels of land having less accessibility, less built-up areas etc may be possible proxy indicators which contribute to carrying capacity which includes productive capacity, supportive capacity, regulatory capacity and social and cultural capacity. It is high time to protect the carrying capacity rich regions from built-up disturbance to ensure the ecosystem services to be delivered. Undisturbed ecosystems will maintain our rich biodiversity which is quintessential requirements for the ecosystems to function properly.

Declining Carrying Capacity of the immediate region of the human settlements causes importing of fruits and vegetables which are antioxidants to our body, the nutrient value of which is diminished manyfold on transit apart from possible adulteration. Importing of food items causes more ecological footprint due to more and more fossil fuel consumption which affects the economy of the human settlements. More and more emissions only cause ecological overshoot wherein ecological footprint is exceeding biocapacity of the subsystem.

To increase the Environmental Efficiency of human systems enhancement of Carrying Capacity is very much essential. Carrying Capacity of the subsystems ensure healthy living by ensuring clean air, quality water, fresh fruits and vegetables etc apart from protection from natural disasters like flood, drought, landslides, forest fires etc. Similarly, Environmentally-Efficient human settlements contribute to more Carrying Capacity as ecological-footprint has a reduced value. Yes, Environmental Efficiency and Carrying Capacity contribute to each other and they are like two sides of a coin.

If the development rights are transferred (TDR) from carrying-capacity rich regions to environmentally-efficient human settlements it can create WONDERS as transportation losses and spare capacity are contained and efficiency of the human settlements are streamlined.

Projects and Programs based on EE &CC

Kochi Hygeia Valley

The innovative project based on EE & CC theories which is proposed by the Greater Cochin Development Authority

EE & CC Mapping

EE & CC maps are prepared for the city to identify environmentally-efficient locations, and carrying capacity rich locations which would be useful effective decision making

Buidings Efficiency Enhancement Projects

Advisory services would be given to enhance the efficiency of public buildings to make it environmentally-efficient

Internship Programs

Internship programs are launched and the students from multidisciplinay disciplines would be taught the crux of EE & CC theories and its importance from individual level to global level. Students of Visual Media, Art & Design, Architecture, Planning and business management can apply. Next season of internships are during June, July 2020.

GIS education

Internship programs are launched and the students from multidisciplinay disciplines would be taught the crux of EE & CC theories and its importance from individual level to global level. Students of Visual Media, Art & Design, Architecture, Planning and business management can apply. Next season of internships are during June, July 2020.

Smart Army

Smart Army programs are envisaged in schools and various academic and professional institutions. The students will be explained the theory of EE & CC and how it is important for the world, nation, state, cities, community, family and even at individual level for effective decision making and prioritisation of our plans and programs.

Consultancy Services

Centre for Environmental Efficiency is looking forward for taking consultancy servies related to Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environmental Impact Assessments, Urban and Regional Planning, Energy Auditing, Technoeconomic feasibility studies, detailed project reports and GIS. EE&CC implementation partners are identified who would be supporting CEE for the implementation of EE&CC theories for a better city to achieve a better world.

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