World urbanisation is mostly happening at two extreme ways. In less developed countries there is tendency of big cities becoming bigger day by day. This often causes overcrowding and overload to the existing infrastructure, resulting in urban decay, chaos and miseries and thus environmentally less efficient. Also there are urbanised regions in countries which are under-populated and affected by urban sprawl creating spare capacity of infrastructure, fossil fuel wastage and under-performing ecosystems resulting in less environmental efficiency.

EE and CC based development planning and management of metropolitan areas reduces the gap between output and input of a human settlement system. The gap is either hidden as spare capacity of infrastructure / resources or losses like fossil fuel wastage, distribution losses of power transmission etc. Reduction of this gap increases the profitability of the business establishments and enable efficient administration of the governments. As the profitability increases job opportunities also increase. This enables balanced urban and regional development and urbanisation of a higher percentage of people. A fewer percentage of people will be depending on primary sector activities causing bulk production with high mechanisation and automation so that percapita productivity of primary sector activities also multiplies.

EE and CC evaluation and monitoring in India can be implemented through NUIS (National Urban Information System) programme of Government of India which is spearheaded by Global Urban Observatory Programme of UN HABITAT. In India NUIS programme is taken up by Town and Country Planning Organisation under the Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation, Government of India.Policy formulation and investment prioritisation can be done based on the EE and CC performance of different cities/metropolitan areas within the states.