FORMATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFICIENCY INDICATOR SYSTEM


A serious problem associated with environmentally efficient development management is the lack of organised data for efficient evaluation and monitoring. There is an urgent need for capacity building at local level. Collection of data, creation of statistics, and formulation of indicators and indices enable monitoring ,evaluation and comparison which help in policy formulation and intervention towards better environmental efficiency.

Indicator Initiatives
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro, 1992 was attended by 120 heads of state. A large number of documents on various issues concerning mankind and to save the earth were prepared for global action. The action program called upon countries, particularly developing countries to initiate programs in the area of governance for sustainable development. The program covered various aspects like capacity building, fine tuning of the existing institutional framework, good governance, need for better policy formulation and improved planning and management of the environment. Initiation of CSD indicators of sustainable development was one of the major outcomes of the UNCED. The key areas of CSD indicator framework are Social, environmental, economic and institutional.

In the Habitat II conference held in Instanbul (1996) member countries committed them selves to implement the Habitat Agenda through policy and plans of action designed at each level in cooperation with all interested partners. All partners were asked to monitor and evaluate their own performance in working towards adequate shelter for all and sustainable development in an urbanizing world.

United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) in close partnership with United Nations Development Program(UNDP), world bank and other organisations conceived and developed Urban Indicators Program (UIP). The emphasis of UIP is adopting a partnership approach involving decision makers at the government level and stake holders who have interest in urban development issues. The program was envisaged to be implemented through the setting up of a system of observatories at the global, regional, national and local levels. The key areas of Urban Indicator Framework are Socio-economic development, Infrastructure, Transportation, Environmental Management, Governance and Housing.

Setting up of an indicator system for efficiency evaluation at city/metropolitan area and carrying capacity evaluation at the regional level is highly essential for decision making and policy formulation to guide the development in the optimum path.

Some of the indicators which can be evolved from HD/EFp concept towards environmental efficiency are

1. Life expectancy at birth
. Life expectancy at birth of both male and female
. Death rate due to accidents
. Death rate due to epidemics
. Morbidity rate
. % people suffering from life style diseases
. % of people dying of cancer

2. Adult literacy rate
. Adult literacy rate of male and females
. % of people well versed with English (an international language)
. Number of professionals
. Overall skills achievement (swimming, cycling, driving etc)
. Budget Allocation for R&D activities
3. Gross Enrolment ratio

. Gross enrolment ratio of male and female
. Enrolment ratio of primary education
. Enrolment ratio of secondary education
. Enrolment ratio of tertiary education
4. Per capita income

. Per capita income from the primary sector
. Per capita income from secondary sector
. Per capita income from tertiary sector
. Per capita income of male and female workers
. Workers participation ratio
. Percentage of 60+ and 75+ population
5. Per capita energy consumption

. Per capita energy from hydel power
. Per capita nuclear energy
. Per capita fossil fuel consumption
. Percentage of non-conventional energy
. Transportation trip length and trip time
. % trips by public transport
. % trips by walking and cycling
6. per capita built up area consumption

. Built up area break up based on use
. Ratio of non-residential to residential use
. Ratio of floor area to built up area of the city( city FAR)
. Percentage of government land
. Percentage of occupied land
. Percentage of occupied buildings
. No of high rise buildings

Some of the proxy indicators of efficiency identified are

. Land utility index
. Accessibility
. per capita built up area consumption
. productivity index derived from the ecosystems disturbance factor
. effective space/land utilization constant of shared communities

There is an urgent need for Greater Kochi Urban Observatory to be formed in line with global urban observatory program of UN-Habitat to obtain infrastructure and methodologies and to incorporate efficiency related indicators to quantify and monitor the efficiency of the development management system.