Inefficient development management of cities causes urban sprawl. This causes fragmentation of agricultural land and disturbance to ecosystem which affects the agricultural productivity. When agricultural land is becoming less productive people refrain from doing agriculture there and invade forest land for agriculture and allied activities. This causes disturbance to forest ecosystem through fragmentation.

Going through the literature it is reported as follows.' Forests are among the first casualties as human population explodes. It is scientifically established that fragmentation of shrinking of forests into smaller patches honeycombed with human settlements, highways, dams , mines or developmental projects is the most serious threat to bio-diversity and forest conservation. When a large block of forest gets fragmented the edges of all the bits come into contact with human activities resulting in degradation of the entire forests. As continuity of forested landscapes and corridors getting disrupted, populations of single species and the composition of entire animal communities are affected. Rare inferior forest species are replaced with common, adaptable 'trash' species of plants and animals.(Bharghav.P,2007).A study on the 'deforestation in parts of Western Ghats region(Kerala) (Chattopadhyay.s, 1985) reports that there is substantial depletion of forest land 1905 estimate of 44.4% area under forest vegetation had declined to 27.7% by 1965 and 17.1% by 1973 and 14.7% by 1983.Achieving sustainable forest management results in a better biocapacity of the supporting region which in turn again contribute HD/EFP of the metropolitan area as region becomes highly productive.

It is learnt that a sum of RS 5000 Crore corpus fund collected by imposing levies on many development projects in forest areas is available with Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India under the head CAMPA (Compensatory Afforestation fund Management and planning Authority). Bharghav.P opined that disturbance to forest eco-system cannot be compensated by planting in nearby grass lands, useless exotic species such as Acacia, Eucalyptus and Casua rina, as it end up in destruction of two natural habitats. In this background it is hereby stated that sustainable forest management can be effectively achieved by achievement of environmental efficiency of metropolitan areas. It curbs urban sprawl and invasion of forest land. This in turn again contribute to HD/EFP of cities and thus the nation.