EE & CC GLOBAL TO LOCAL

The methodology introduced by UNDP and WWF for human development index and ecological footprint can be applied at national, sub-national, district and human settlement level. UN-Habitat, in its Urban Indicators Tool Kit, explains the methodology of finding out the 'city product' (indicator 21) which would be useful for the calculation of Human Development Index at city level.

Health achievements and educational achievements can be calculated at city level, by incorporating wellness of the society and overall human skills achievements. EFp calculations at city level are also possible. City of Santa Monica calculated its Ecological Footprint from 1990 to 2000 and reduced the footprint from 2914 sq. miles to 2747 sq. miles through policy revisit, energy conservation and alternate energy measures. All metropolitan areas are supported by a region to provide natural resources and energy for city input. CC of the supporting region is also very important for attaining EE of the city/ metropolitan area.

Encouraging planned, compact, high density development coupled with green building techniques can contribute substantially to EE enhancement at city level. Apart from achieving lesser ecological footprint, CC enhancement is possible through ecosystem conservation by curbing urban sprawl on the consideration of sound externalities and spillovers as 'ecosystems don`t obey the rules of private property' ( MA 2005).

EE and CC evaluation and monitoring can be spearheaded by Global Urban Observatory Programme of UN HABITAT through their national, state and local urban observatories across the world. Policy formulation and investment prioritization can be done based on the EE and CC performance of different states/cities within the nations.

EE and CC based development planning and management can be evolved at metropolitan area level using remote sensing GIS possibilities by identifying proxy indicators. This can also be developed as a Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment tool at city/metropolitan region level.